Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the reform of natural gas price has been like this
natural gas is a high-quality and efficient clean energy. Vigorously promoting the development of natural gas industry is the only way for China to speed up the construction of a modern clean and efficient energy system. It is also an effective way to resolve environmental constraints, improve air quality, and achieve green and low-carbon development, which is of great significanceSince the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China
in accordance with the general idea of "controlling the middle and opening up the two ends", we have insisted on paying equal attention to reform and regulation. While accelerating the market-oriented reform of natural gas prices and rapidly improving the degree of market-oriented prices in competitive links such as gas sources and sales, we have strengthened the supervision of transmission and distribution prices in natural monopoly links, and focused on building a natural gas industry chain from cross provincial long-distance transmission pipelines to provincial short-distance transportation pipelines And then to the relatively perfect price supervision system framework in all links such as urban gas distribution pipelines
steadily put "two ends" and the market-oriented reform of natural gas prices is advancing rapidly
summarizing the development process of mature markets, it is found that a country's natural gas industry generally experiences three main stages of initial growth, rapid growth and stable growth, and the corresponding price mechanism is usually cost plus, linked to oil prices, and finally realizes gas competition. Drawing on the experience of mature markets, at the beginning of China's natural gas price reform, it was clear that the ultimate goal of the reform was to liberalize gas sources and sales prices, stimulate market vitality and improve the efficiency of resource allocation. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, closely focusing on the reform objectives, we have adopted the implementation steps of "non residents before residents", "pilot before promotion", "increment before stock" and "rationalization while liberalization" through the promotion method of "easy before difficult", so as to promote the reform quickly and steadily
pilot projects should be carried out first, methods should be innovated, and a new mechanism for dynamic adjustment should be established.
at the end of 2011, pilot projects for the reform of natural gas price formation mechanism should be carried out in Guangdong and Guangxi. In combination with the actual situation of the integrated operation of production, transportation and sales in China's natural gas industry, the price management of natural gas is adjusted from the ex factory link to the gate station link, the maximum ceiling price management is implemented, and the pricing method is changed from "cost plus" pricing to "market net return value" pricing, and a dynamic adjustment mechanism linking the price of natural gas with fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and other alternative energy is established
set goals, implement step by step, and comprehensively straighten out the price of non residential gas
in June 2013, based on the experience of pilot projects in Guangdong and Guangxi, a new mechanism for natural gas price formation was promoted nationwide. At the same time, in order to reduce the resistance to reform and distinguish between stock gas and incremental gas, the price of incremental gas is adjusted in one step to maintain a reasonable price comparison with the price of alternative energy. The price of stock gas is planned to be adjusted in three steps, with an increase of 0.4 yuan per cubic meter in that year; In September 2014, the "second step" of reform was implemented, and the price of stock gas was increased by 0.4 yuan again to narrow the price difference with incremental gas; In April, 2015, according to the price changes of alternative energy, the incremental gas price was reduced by 0.44 yuan, and the stock gas price was increased by 0.04 yuan, so as to realize the price integration, complete the "three-step" plan, and comprehensively straighten out the price of non residential gas. In November 2015, according to the sharp decline in the price of alternative energy, the price of non residential valve stations was reduced by 0.7 yuan per cubic meter. In August 2017, combined with the reduction of pipeline transportation price and the adjustment of value-added tax rate, the price of non residential valve stations was reduced by 0.1 yuan per cubic meter again
market orientation, orderly liberalization, in-depth promotion of market-oriented reform
taking into account the supply and demand and price changes in the domestic and foreign energy markets, orderly liberalize the price of gas sources. In 2013, the prices of unconventional natural gas such as shale gas, coalbed methane and coal to gas were liberalized; In September 2014, the price of liquefied natural gas sources was liberalized; In April, 2015, the price of gas directly supplied to users outside chemical fertilizer enterprises was released; In 2016, the price of non decomposing fertilizer gas at normal temperature was liberalized, and it was made clear that the relevant price of gas storage facilities was determined by the market, and the pilot reform of door station price marketization was carried out in Fujian Province; In 2017, it was made clear that all gas volume prices entered the trading platform for public transactions were formed by market transactions. Through the gradual reform of "small steps and fast progress", the degree of marketization of domestic natural gas prices has been significantly improved. Before the reform, domestic natural gas prices were basically managed by the government; After the reform, the price of non residential gas, which accounts for more than 80% of the total domestic consumption, has been formed by the market, of which more than 50% is completely formed by the market, and about 30% implements the flexible mechanism of "floating up 20% and floating down unlimited"
since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the domestic natural gas price reform has taken a rapid and steady step, which has not only comprehensively straightened out the non residential gas prices, but also realized that most of the prices have been formed under the guidance of the market, which has won high praise from all sectors of society, and the policy effect has gradually appeared
first, it has increased the enthusiasm of enterprises to produce and introduce overseas resources, enhanced the ability to guarantee resource supply, and basically eliminated the phenomenon of "gas shortage"
second, it has promoted the rational allocation of natural gas resources and promoted the elimination of backward production capacity and industrial upgrading
third, we have straightened out the interests of all links of the industrial chain and improved the efficiency of natural gas utilization
fourth, the market-oriented reform direction has been accepted and recognized by all walks of life, and the market vitality has been continuously enhanced, laying the foundation for further promoting industrial reform and price reform
fifth, according to the price changes of alternative energy, the price of non residential gas should be reduced in time according to the mechanism, and the cost of gas enterprises should be reduced by more than 120billion yuan, so as to promote the development of the real economy
fine pipe "in the middle", transmission and distribution price pipe, fine pipe, good pipe in place
natural gas pipeline transportation and distribution have the nature of monopoly, which is an indispensable part of the industrial chain, and its price should be strictly supervised by the government. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, we have resolutely implemented the general requirements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on strengthening the price supervision of network natural monopoly links and improving the government pricing system. On the basis of summarizing the practical experience of natural gas transmission and distribution price management and learning from the common practices of countries with mature markets, we have quickly built a refined, institutionalized and transparent transmission and distribution price supervision system, and achieved important phased results
reform the pricing mechanism of pipeline transportation, and take the lead in realizing the full coverage of price supervision measures and cost supervision and review measures
in view of the rapid development and connection of China's natural gas pipelines, the original "one line one price" price management method can not meet the actual situation of market development needs, in October 2016, the measures for the management of natural gas pipeline transportation prices (Trial) and the measures for the supervision and review of natural gas pipeline transportation pricing costs (Trial) were issued, Establish a scientific and perfect pipeline transportation price supervision system. The core contents are:
first, clarify the pricing method. Follow the principle of "allowable cost plus reasonable income", and make detailed provisions on the scope and object of price supervision, methods and procedures of price management, as well as some core indicators. Second, the pricing cost should be strictly verified. The pipeline transportation business is required to be accounted for separately, and the costs are collected separately, and the verification standards that constitute the main indicators of pricing costs are clarified. Third, promote information disclosure. Require enterprises to actively disclose cost information and strengthen social supervision; The pricing department will publicize the cost supervision conclusion and pricing basis, and improve the transparency of price supervision
the reform of natural gas pipeline transportation price, taking the lead in realizing the full coverage of price supervision methods and cost supervision and examination methods in the important network natural monopoly field, is a major breakthrough in the innovation of price work functions under the new normal, reflects the important transformation of government pricing from price level setting to regulatory system supply, and marks a substantive step towards refinement and institutionalization of price supervision in the network natural monopoly link, It is conducive to stimulate the enthusiasm of social capital to invest in the construction of pipelines, and lays a foundation for the implementation of open access of third parties to pipelines and the promotion of market-oriented reform of natural gas prices, which is of great significance to promote the long-term sustainable development of the natural gas industry
strengthen the regulation of gas distribution price and build a price supervision system for the whole industry chain.
urban gas distribution pipelines are the "capillaries" of natural gas supply, and natural gas distribution is the "last mile" of the industry chain. The price regulation of natural gas distribution in China is relatively lagging behind, and the "last mile" regulation in some places is not in place, which is mainly reflected in the fact that the gas distribution price has not been independently verified, the costs and prices of various links have not been clearly defined, the regulatory rules are not perfect, the degree of institutionalization and standardization of price management is not high, the difference in gas distribution price levels is large, the prices in a few places are high, and the burden on enterprises is heavy. In response to these situations, the guiding opinions on strengthening the supervision of gas distribution prices (hereinafter referred to as the Guiding Opinions) was issued in June 2017. Following the establishment of pipeline transportation price supervision rules in 2016, a price supervision framework for downstream urban gas distribution was further established, thereby establishing a full link price supervision system in the field of natural gas transmission and distribution
the guidance clarifies the formulation method of gas distribution price, determines the selection range of important index parameters, and puts forward specific requirements for strengthening supervision. In particular, three highlights have been widely recognized by the society:
first, establish a cost constraint mechanism. Some core index parameters that directly affect the gas distribution price, such as the supply and marketing gap, depreciation life, minimum distribution gas volume, etc., are subject to upper limit standards or restrictive provisions, so as to promote enterprises to strengthen cost management and improve industry efficiency
the second is to establish an incentive mechanism. Encourage all regions to scientifically determine the benchmark cost, and establish a benefit sharing mechanism between gas enterprises and users for the part where the actual cost is lower than the benchmark cost through their own efforts, so as to encourage enterprises to improve business efficiency and actively reduce the cost of gas distribution
third, promote enterprise information disclosure. Gas enterprises are required to actively disclose price, cost and other relevant information, so as to facilitate the cost benchmarking of different enterprises and strengthen social supervisionIn the first half of 2017, the state organized 12 cost supervision and review teams to conduct cost supervision and review on 13 natural gas long-distance pipeline transportation enterprises in accordance with unified methods, principles and standards, excluding 13 enterprises with invalid assets of 18.5 billion yuan, with a reduction rate of 7%; The reduction should not be included in the total pricing cost of 4.6 billion yuan, with a reduction ratio of 16%. On the basis of cost supervision and review, the transportation price of long-distance pipeline was approved in August 2017. The average price of pipeline transportation after approval decreased by about 15%, reducing the burden of downstream gas enterprises by about 10billion yuan. In terms of local transmission and distribution prices, Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hebei, Yunnan, Jiangxi and other places have formulated provincial transmission and distribution price supervision rules in accordance with national requirements, and reduced the provincial pipeline transportation price and gas distribution price, which has reduced the burden of enterprises by more than 4billion yuan
with the gradual appearance of the policy effect, it not only promotes the cost reduction and efficiency increase of pipeline transportation enterprises, reduces the burden of gas consumption enterprises, and makes the income of all links of the industrial chain more reasonable, but also effectively promotes the fair and open management and promotes the market-oriented trading of natural gas. After the long-distance pipeline transportation price was verified, the two pipeline transportation enterprises took the initiative to announce the opening of pipelines to third parties at the first time
promote the construction of markets, and successfully build a new platform for price reform
natural gas is an important commodity in the world, and its price voice represents a country's soft power. The establishment of trading markets is an important means and way to promote market-oriented reform and enhance international influence. In recent years, our committee has actively promoted the construction of natural gas market and successfully built two market-oriented reform platforms in Shanghai and Chongqing, one east and one west